African Journal of Water Conservation and Sustainability ISSN: 2375-0936 Vol. 10 (4), pp. 001-019, April, 2022. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

A review of fresh water programming and access options in Ghana West Africa

Grace L. Baldwin& Robert M. Stwalley IIIA*

APurdue University Agricultural & Biological Engineering 225 South University StreetWest Lafayette, Indiana  47907-2093 USA

Accepted 03 February, 2022


This paper seeks to provide insight into progress addressing secure fresh water access for citizens in Ghana, as well as the work remaining to ensure continuing, universal access to fresh water. Significant progress has been made, but sizable areas do not yet have safe, sustainable potable water supplies. Current ground water source options within the country include drilled, driven, hand-augered, and hand-dug wells. Fresh water is needed throughout the country for domestic use. A broad search of technical, business, and government sources was used for this review. Through this effort, current fresh water programming efforts and the key factors affecting the investment in potable water systems are identified. Future fresh water program planning and implementation suggestions are provided. A brief economic analysis provides insight into the cost-to-benefit ratio for community members and the price points that they are willing to pay for water. The overall literature review suggests that a revamp of significant initiatives aimed at addressing the severe lack of current fresh water resources and disparities by region within the country could have a positive effect on the achievement of universal water access.

Keywords. Augered wells, dug wells, drilled wells, driven wells, Ghana, potable water, WASH, water systems.