International Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

International Journal of Anatomy and Physiology ISSN: 2326-7275 Vol. 9 (3), pp. 001-006, March, 2020. © International Scholars Journals


The hormone-emotion-behavioural gene-neuromessenger labyrinth: Pertinent questions

N. A. Adamafio

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. E-mail:,

Accepted 10 September, 2019


The discovery of behavioural genes has raised the prospect that behaviour may be governed, in part, by the actions of mutant gene products on the brain. These are mostly enzymes or proteins involved in processes related to neurotransmission. In addition, numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of specific hormones on behaviour. Furthermore, the ability of intense emotions to stimulate or suppress the synthesis of a variety of hormones is well-documented. An incredibly murky picture of multi-directional interrelationships between behavioural genes, emotions and biochemical messengers is emerging, making it increasingly difficult to distinguish between causes and effects. This article seeks to highlight a number of unresolved issues in this intriguing area of behavioural endocrinology and examine the ramifications of behavioural gene discoveries.

Keywords: Hormones, emotions, neuromessengers, HPA axis, behavioural genes.