African Journal of Physics

African Journal of Physics ISSN 9821-5213 Vol. 10 (2), pp. 001-014, February, 2023. International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper                    

The Unification of Coulomb’s Electrostatic Law with Newton’s Gravitational Law – A Generalised Model

Fritz C Jacobs

Windhoek, Republic of Namibia. E-mail:

Received 25 November, 2022; Accepted 16 January, 2023                    -                                                                                     


The unification of electrostatic force and gravity is one of the most pressing research areas. Newton’s universal gravitational constant G is and has been the key constant in the calculations of classical mechanics for the gravitational potential, the force of attraction between two masses, as well as the motion in the solar system. It is shown that Newton’s Gravitational Law and Coulomb’s Electrostatic Law are manifestations of the same fundamental interactions.  G depends on the quantum physical composition of matter, being the atomic number/protons (Z) to atomic mass number (A) ratio.  All planets orbiting the Sun yield, within statistical significance, the same G.  However, the gravitational constants of atoms are distinctly different for each element and from that of the solar/planetary system.  Kepler’s third law (α = R3 / T2) and Newton’s gravitational law (F = -GMm / R2) are fundamental references for orbital motion. It is shown that the unifying gravitational constant for all matter of nature is G = {1.5251892 x 1029}  It is further hypothesised that gravity is electrostatic in nature and that the two laws are reciprocally special cases of the general formula derived and presented in this paper.

Keywords: Relativity, Newton’s gravitational law, Coulomb’s electrostatic law, Schrödinger’s equation, Astrophysics, gravitational constants of Periodic Table elements and planetary masses, atomic interactions, space-time, Kepler’s laws, dimensionless numbers of nature, Gauss’ theorem.