African Journal of Physics

African Journal of Physics Vol. 3 (5), pp. 130-135, May, 2016. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of solar energy budget within Cross River Estuary, Nigeria: implication for marine transportation

Kelechukwu W. Frank1* and Oestin David2

1Department of Science, Maritime Academy of Nigeria, Oron, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

2Department of Marine Meteorology, Maritime Academy of Nigeria, Oron, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Accepted 19 January 2015


The meteorological parameters obtained from weather station in Uyo (2009 - 2013) were analyzed using Angstrom model to estimate the solar energy budget available in the Cross River estuary. The daily data obtained over the period of five years were converted to monthly data. The regression coefficients for Angstrom model (used for estimating solar energy budget) were obtained using SPSS. The results showed that the value of extraterrestrial radiation (Ho) for the estuary was 526.191 MJm-2 day-1. While the estimated solar irradiance (energy budget) for the study area was 167.94 MJm–2 day–1. This amount of energy is large enough to complement 80 liters of diesel used by seagoing vessel for a round trip between Oron and Calabar. Also, the computed relative sunshine duration yielded 0.706. This shows that the local atmosphere was not clear over the period studied but cloudy. Despite the cloudy conditions of the atmosphere, nature has budgeted sufficient solar energy in the study area. Based on these, the study recommends that water vessels within the study area should be encouraged to use solar energy in their day to day activities, as this will not only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but ensures that water craft operates in a more environmental friendly way.

Key words: Extraterrestrial, sunshine, energy, marine transportation, cloudy.