African Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases

African Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases ISSN 4123-0981 Vol. 8 (3), pp. 001-006, March, 2020. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Anti-malarial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Piliostigma thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniacea) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei

A. A. Madara1*, J. A. Ajayi2, O. A. Salawu3 and A. Y. Tijani3

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Idu Industrial Area, P. M. B. 21, Garki-Abuja, Nigeria.

Accepted 10 October, 2019

Abstract

Piliostigma thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniacea) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulceration. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Piliostigma thorningii was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke’s method. The ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated for in vivo anti plasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei berghei NK65 in mice. Four day suppressive, curative effect against established infection and prophylactic models of anti plasmodial studies were carried out. The oral median lethal dose was determined to be 3807.89 mg/kg body weight. The extract (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) exerted dose dependent chemo suppressive effects at the different levels of the infections tested. However the anti-plasmodial effect of chloroquine at 5 mg/kg body weight was higher than the extract in all the test models. This shows that the plant has anti plasmodial property that can be explored for the management of malaria.

Key words: Piliostigma thonningii, anti plasmodial, Plasmodium berghei berghei   NK65.