African Journal of Fisheries Science

African Journal of Fisheries Science ISSN 2375-0715 Vol. 8 (9), pp. 001-012, September, 2020. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Multidisciplinary identification of clupeiform fishes from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

Graciela García1*, Gustavo Martínez2, Susana Retta2, Verónica Gutiérrez1, Julia Vergara1,4 and María de las Mercedes Azpelicueta3

1Sección Genética Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, CP 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.

2Departamento de Biología Pesquera. Dirección Nacional de Recursos Acuáticos. MGAP. Constituyente 1407,  CP

11200. Montevideo, Uruguay.

3CONICET. Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque, 1904 La Plata, Argentina.

4CONICET. Cátedra de Diversidad Animal I, FCEFyN, UNC, Av. Velez Sarsfield 299, Córdoba, Argentina.

Accepted 15 April, 2020

Abstract

In the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, several described species of Clupeiformes overlap their geographical distribution in the coastal areas from Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) to Bahía Blanca (Argentina) and the Río de la Plata estuary. Larvae and juveniles of the SW Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia aurea are very difficult to discriminate from those of other clupeids belonging to the genera Platanichthys and Ramnogaster inhabiting the same environments. Here we implemented phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and morphometric and osteological studies to achieve unambiguous species recognition in different ontogenetic stages of six endemic species of Clupeiformes from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. All phylogenetic analyses based on the cytochrome b gene yielded a robust support to the existence of highly structured and monophyletic groups conforming clupeiforms taxa. These monophyletic entities were consistent with major groups accessed through the first two principal components (PCs) from morphometric variation among taxa. Both approaches resulted in accurated and complementary tools for the individual assignment in clades and groups within Clupeiformes during different ontogenetic stages in their life cycle. The detection of species-specific spawning and nursery areas through accurated methodological approaches of identification constitute a prerequisite for a sustainable management in pelagic fisheries.

Key words: Estuarine, clupeiformes, identification, morphology, cytochrome b.