International Journal of Microbiology Research and Reviews ISSN 2329-9800 Vol. 6 (5), pp. 340-344, May, 2017. © International Scholars Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Dental caries: The most common disease worldwide and preventive strategies
Ishik University, Faculty of Dentistry, Basic Sciences,44, Arbil, Iraq.
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Accepted 22 July, 2014
Dental caries is the most prevalent infectious disease worldwide. There are different causes of tooth caries such as the dietary habit and oral hygiene. The morphology of the tooth also plays an important role in the formation of caries. The organic material of the tooth is made up of hydroxyapatite crystals. These crystals are demineralized in the presence of high acidity. The pH of the mouth environment is critical in the mineralization-demineralization process. It is a well-known fact that when carbohydrate is consumed in daily diet with the help of bacteria, the sugar is fermented and lactic acid is formed. Consequently the pH of the environment decreases which will lead the dental caries formation. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive look at dental caries in terms of microbiology, diet, oral hygiene and its preventive measures.
Keywords: Dental caries, tooth enamel, oral hygiene, diet and lactic acid.