International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

Instructions to Authors

The International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (IJMMS) (ISSN: 2167-0404) welcomes the submission of high-quality solicited and unsolicited articles, in English, in all areas of medicine and medical sciences. Because medicine is a diverse field, articles should address questions utilizing a variety of methods and theoretical perspectives. All manuscripts submitted to IJMMS are first evaluated on the basis of scientific quality, originality, appropriateness, contribution to the field and style. Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Arial font).

Submissions should be done electronically via e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: isj@internationalscholarsjournals.org with the following information:

  • Your name and institution with full address details;
  • Title or name of journal you wish to submit a manuscript to;
  • Title of your paper
  • A cover letter with names, email addresses and affiliations of three possible reviewers as well as a declaration that the prospective manuscript is original and has not been published before nor is it under consideration for publication by another publishe. A manuscript number will be mailed to the corresponding author same day or within 72 hours.

Authors are expected to write out their personal information in a cover letter that should include the corresponding author's full address and telephone/fax numbers and should be in an e-mail message sent to the Editor, with the file, whose name should begin with the first author's surname, as an attachment. The journal does not accept number citations in the body of the manuscript. All citations must be in-text citation or in-body citation, that is, cite the author’s name and the year of publication. 

Note that International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences will only accept manuscripts submitted as e-mail attachments.

Types of Articles Published by IJMMS

The following  types of manuscripts may be submitted:

 

• Short communications

• Commentaries

• Original Research Articles

• Case Reports

• Reviews

• Perspectives

• Analyses

• Symposia Pieces

• Book Reviews

• Profiles

• Autobiographical Essays

• Interviews

• Medical Education Articles

• Reflections etc.

Short communication: A short communication should be a concise but independent report representing a significant contribution to knowledge. IJMMS provides researchers with a platform where they can share their most current results and developments within the shortest possible time. The short communication, like regular article, will be reviewed by expert reviewers and evaluated by the editor.  Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results except these results are of special interest and are particularly topical and relevant. In this regard, IJMMS welcomes the submission of original short communications from authors, not exceeding 2-4 pages.

Commentaries: Commentary articles should seek to provide a critical or alternative viewpoint on a key issue or provide an insight into an important development that is of interest to a large number of medical scientists. A typical commentary article accepted by IJMMS should contain the following sections: Title, Authors' Names and Affiliations, Abstract, Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion,  Supporting Information (if any), Acknowledgements,  (optional) and References.

Original Research Articles: Original research articles should present a medical or scientific advance. These manuscripts should present well-rounded studies reporting innovative advances that further knowledge about a topic of importance to the fields of medicine and medical sciences. The conclusions of the original research article should clearly be supported by the results. These can be consider as a full-length article and should not be more than 6000 words. A typical original research article accepted by IJMMS should contain five sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Materials and Methods

(iv) Results

(v) Discussion

Case Reports: Case reports should describe an unusual disease presentation, a new treatment, an unexpected drug interaction, a new diagnostic method, or a difficult diagnosis. Case reports should include relevant positive and negative findings from history, examination, and investigation and may include clinical photographs. Additionally, the author must make it clear what the case adds to the field of medicine and medical sciences, and should include an up-to-date review of all previous cases in the field. These articles should not be more than 5,000 words with no more than 6 figures and 3 tables. Case Reports submitted to IJMMS should contain five sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Case Presentation (clinical presentation, observations, test results, and accompanying figures)

(iv) Discussion

(v) Conclusions

Reviews: Reviews submitted to IJMMS should provide a logical survey and examination of a particular subject of research in medicine. These can be submitted as a mini-review (less than 2,500 words, 3 figures, and 1 table) or a long review (no more than 6,000 words, 6 figures, and 3 tables). They should include critical assessment of the works cited, explanations of conflicts in the literature, and analysis of the field. The conclusion must discuss in detail the limitations of current knowledge, future directions to be pursued in research, and the overall importance of the topic in medicine and medical sciences.  Reviews submitted to IJMMS should contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

Perspectives: Perspectives should provide a personal view on medical or biomedical topics in a clear narrative tone. Articles should relate personal experiences, historical perspective, or scientist profile on people or topics important to medicine. These articles should not be more than 6,000 words. Perspectives submitted to IJMMS should contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

Analyses: Analyses should provide an in-depth prospective and informed analysis of a policy, major advance, or historical description of a topic related to medicine and medical sciences. These articles should not be more than 6,000 words with no more than 3 figures and 1 table. Analyses submitted to IJMMS should contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

Symposium Pieces: Symposium pieces should describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposium to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium. An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review]

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook.

Book Reviews: Book reviews cover relevant books important to clinicians and researchers. These articles should provide a description of the book being reviewed, the strengths and weaknesses of the book, and the intended audience. The reviews should be 1500 to 5000 words.

Profiles: Profiles should describe a notable person in the fields of medicine and medical sciences. These articles should contextualize the individual’s contributions to the field at large as well as provide some personal and historical background on the person being described. More specifically, this should be done by describing what was known at the time of the individual’s discovery/contribution and how that finding contributes to the field as it stands today. These pieces should not be more than 6,000 words, with up to 6 figures and 3 tables. The articles should include the following:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions

Interviews: Interviews should be presented as either a transcript of an interview given with questions and answers presented or as a personal reflection after a given interview. If the latter is submitted, the author must indicate to the readers that the article is based on an interview. These pieces should not be more than 5,000 words. The articles should include:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Questions and answers clearly indicated by subheadings or topics (headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions

 Autobiographical Essays: In this regard, the prospective author is expected to share his experiences, challenges and moment of truth in his medical or clinical practice in an exciting manner. This calls for excellent writing skill. Contributions must be informative, educative, entertaining, promote thinking and be well written.

Submissions should contain the basic framework that any essay should have, like an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement, a body containing several paragraphs and a conclusion. Your autobiography will turn out best if you write it simply because you want to, perhaps to share the experiences of your career life with others, to give as a gift to the scientific community, to try and understand your life and the forces that have shaped you, to preserve your legacy, or simply to exercise your desire to write. These pieces should not be more than 7,000 words. The articles may include the following:

Abstract

Introduction

Early years and educational Experiences

Career overview

Discoveries & Inventions

Criticisms

Influence  

Affiliations & Positions

Academic achievements/ Honors/Awards/Recognitions/ Accolades/ Nominations

Teaching and fellowships

Membership and Associations

Scholarly contributions

Authored books

Scientific Publications

Other scholarly efforts

Medical Education Articles: IJMMS welcomes high quality solicited and unsolicited papers on every aspects of medical and health science education.  Our mission here is to provide a veritable platform where different categories of healthcare professionals from around the world can share educational ideas and developments.  IJMMS will publish original articles, case reports, reviews, and perspectives that have medical and health science significance. Authors are encouraged to explore their study from multiple analytical perspectives, to include multiple converging studies if possible, and to specifically state how the study findings add to knowledge in the field. An important criterion for acceptance is educational significance. Manuscripts on any aspect of the process of educating and training health care professionals will be considered for publication. IJMMS accepts papers dealing with but not limited to the following research areas: Basic science education, clinical science education, residency education, learning theory, training challenges in medicine and health science, Ethics in Medical education, problem-based learning (PBL), curriculum development, research design and statistics, measurement and evaluation, faculty development, informatics/web, clinical reasoning, problem-based and self-directed learning etc. Also welcome are  articles discussing issues of interest to the health education community; research articles presenting high quality completed research or evaluation studies; trend articles presenting new ideas as well as studies or descriptions of programs in the early stages of development; and Letters to the Editor discussing topics related to any aspect of educating physicians and other health professionals.

Reflections: IJMMS encourage the submission of manuscript introducing new ideas or philosophical musings on every aspects of medicine and health sciences i.e papers that are not necessarily empirical in nature. Critical reviews of important developments in the field will be particularly encouraged, since advances in any discipline can only result from a deep understanding of what has already been accomplished. To be considered for acceptance, manuscript must appeal to all readers, regardless of their home health profession (medicine, pharmacy, etc.), educational level of interest (e.g. med student, continuing education) or research discipline (qualitative, experimental, etc.). Only very high quality papers of wide interest will be accepted in this regard.

Review procedure 

All articles are reviewed by an editor and members of the Editorial Board or capable external reviewers. Decisions will be made as quickly as possible, and the journal try hard to return reviewers’ evaluations/comments to authors within 2 weeks. IJMMS publish accepted manuscripts within one month after submission.

Regular articles

All portions of the manuscript must be typed double-spaced and all pages numbered starting from the title page.

The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote.

The Abstract or Summary should be exciting, revealing and abundantly clear. It should briefly describe the topic, convey the scope of the research, specify significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 100 to 200 words in length. Well constructed sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard names should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No work should be cited.

Under the abstract, about 5 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references should be listed.

A list of non-standard Abbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelt out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used.

The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution in such a manner that should be intelligible to scholars and researchers from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Materials and Methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly novel procedures should be described in detail; earlier published procedures should be cited, and significant changes of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.

Results should be presented with simplicity, clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but basically without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.

The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.

The Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief and concise.

Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered one after the other in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory and easy to comprehend without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.

Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

References, Footnotes and Endnotes: In the text, a reference identified by means of an author‘s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. When there are more than two authors, only the first author‘s name should be mentioned, followed by ’et al‘. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ’a‘ and ’b‘ after the date to distinguish the works. Footnotes and Endnotes should be properly numbered to ensure uniformity and should be listed after the references.

In-text Reference citations

Examples:

Shakespeare (1999), Gordimer et al. (2001), (Colsby, 1995), (Soyinka and Achebe, 2002), (Morrison, 1996; , 1987a,b; Obama, 1994, 1995), (Okigbo et al., 2001)

Several studies (Soenaryo, 2004; Lemeshow and Levy, 1999) showed that a minimum of two 24-hour recalls ….. in underfives. 

Lemeshow and Levy (1999) revealed that……. 

Nazni et al. (2009) or (Nazni et al., 2009: 98-100)

References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, individual communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text (e.g., C.k. Palmer, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, individual communication). Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Reference Section

Examples:

Wrong Format

Adams K.M., Kate Pedro D.K., and Dunca L.F. (2012). Perception and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), J. Libr. Sci. Res. 9, 165-174.

Correct Format

Adams KM, Kate Pedro DK, Dunca LF (2012). Perception and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). J. Libr. Sci. Res. 9: 165-174.

Gordons SK, Kampas FG, Gigs HD (2009). Impact of Language in Human Society. Am. J. Lang. Ling. 896(3): 449-563.

Wrong Format

Soenaryo, E. (2004). Food product development to optimize children growth and development: indofood Perspective. Proceeding on food and nutrition innovation for Optimizing Children Growth and Development. American Soybean Association, Jakarta.

Correct Format

Soenaryo E (2004). Food product development to optimize children growth and development: Indofood Perspective. Proceeding on Food and Nutrition Innovation for Optimizing Children Growth and Development. American Soybean Association, Jakarta.

Wrong Format

Lemeshow S., and Levy P. S. (1999). Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications. 3rd edn. New York, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc, P. 18-19.

Correct Format

Lemeshow S, Levy PS (1999). Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications. 3rd edn. New York, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc, pp. 18-19.

Wrong Format

Maleta K., Kuittinen J., Duggan M.B., Briend A., Manary M., Wales J., Kulmala T., and Ashorn P. (2004). Supplementary feeding of underweight, stunted Malawian children with a ready-to-use food. Journal of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 38, 152-158.

Correct Format

Maleta K, Kuittinen J, Duggan MB, Briend A, Manary M, Wales J, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. (2004). Supplementary feeding of underweight, stunted Malawian children with a ready-to-use food. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 38: 152-158.

Wrong Format

Nazni P, et al., (2009). Comparative study on supplementation of potato flour biscuits on the nutritional and cognitive profile of the selected children. Iran Journal of Pediatrics, volume 19, pages 285-292.

Correct Format

Nazni P, Subramania A, Subramaniam P (2009). Comparative study on supplementation of potato flour biscuits on the nutritional and cognitive profile of the selected children. Iran J. Pediatr. 19: 285-292.

Case reports 

These should be limited to 1,500 words, should not have more than four authors and should not have more than 20 references. Case reports submitted with a review of literature, must also conform to these rules.

The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should take account of the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Present addresses of authors should appear as a postscript or footnote.

The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 100 to 200 words in length. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.

Under the abstract, about 5 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references should be listed.

A list of non-standard Abbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelt out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. 

The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the appropriate literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution in such a manner that should be understandable to scholars and researchers from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

The presentation of the case study should include the vital information regarding the case. This must include the medical history, demographics, symptoms, tests etc. Kindly note that all information that will lead to the identification of the particular patient(s) must be excluded

The conclusion should highlight the contribution of the study and its relevance in general medical knowledge

The Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.

References: Same as in regular articles

Short Communications

Short Communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length research papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences: (1) Abstracts are limited to 100 words; (2) instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes; (3) Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.

Statement on Scientific Misconduct: IJMMS only publishes original work not published elsewhere. All submissions will be checked for plagiarism and may be rejected on this basis, regardless of the excellence of research. IJMMS considers plagiarism to be the use of others’ published and unpublished results or writing without proper attribution or permission and presenting these works as original. The intent of plagiarism is to mislead the reader to believe the ideas presented are the authors’ own. This serves as a form of scientific misconduct and is not tolerated by the Editors of IJMMS. See IJMMS statement on Publication Ethics.

Proofs and Reprints: Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file.  Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the article. With the exception of typographical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage.  Since IJMMS articles will be published liberally online to attract a wide audience), authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.

Copyright: Submission of an article is done with the understanding that the article has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication somewhere else; that if and when the article is accepted for publication, the authors consent to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.

Fees and Charges: Authors are required to pay a $800 handling fee.  Publication of an article in the International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences is not subject to the author's ability to pay the charges. Neither is acceptance to pay the handling fee a guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication. Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial office waive some of the processing fee under special circumstances. However, there are no submission charges. Authors are required to make payment ONLY after their manuscript has been accepted for publication.