International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences ISSN 2167-0404 Vol. 6 (9), pp. 345-355, September, 2016. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Microbial, biochemical and hematological indices of  antiretroviral (ART) treatment naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients

*1Obimba, Kelechukwu Clarence, 2Alisi, Chinwe Sylvanus, 3Ozougwu, Jevas Chibuike, 4Eziuzor, Chukwunyelum Samuel, 5Obasi, Kingsley Uchechi, 6Nwufo, Kanayo Chekwube

*1,2,5,6Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology Owerri. Imo State. Nigeria.

3,4Department of Biological Science, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Rhema University Aba, Abia, State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author. E-mail: kechrisob@yahoo.com. Tel. 07034851899.

Received 17 September, 2016; Revised 23 September, 2016; Accepted 26 September, 2016; Published 27 September, 2016

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the use of microbial, biochemical, and hematological indices as diagnostic and prognostic parameters of antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. The experimental design was a single factor completely randomized design (CRD). Twenty (n=20) healthy seronegative human subjects (control) and fifty (n=50) HIV seropositive patients were subjected to in vitro qualitative HIV-1/HIV-2 assay, HIV viral load (vl) test, CD4+ T lymphocyte cells count, serum albumin (A), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum total bilirubin (Tb), serum total cholesterol (C), serum triglyceride (T), Hemoglobin (Hb) tests, and blood group and genotype tests (of the HIV seropositive patients) . Results on the HIV-1/HIV-2 assay: 35 (70%) HIV-2 seropositive patients, 3(6%) HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infection patients, 12(24%) HIV-1 seropositive patients. Results recorded of the control group  and HIV positive patients, expressed as mean ± standard error (S.E) (unit) were as follows : vl (0.0 ± 0) and (400 ±70) (copies/ml), CD4+ (1100 ± 100) and (350 ± 50) (/μL), A (4.45±0.1) and (2.81 ±0.05) (g/dl), AST (8.3±0.7) and (40.3±0.7) (U/l), Tb (0.62±0.2) and (2.10±0.3) (mg/dl), C (165 ± 3.4) and (100.8 ± 0.3) (mg/dl), T (125.8±4.7) and (150.8±1.7) (mg/dl), Hb (14.25  ±0.1) and (8.1 ± 0.3) (g/dl), respectively. Blood group and genotype test results (n=50): A=6(12%), B= 5(10%), AB=4(8%), O=35(70%); AA=10(20%), AS=40(80%). The mean values of vl, AST, Tb and T were significantly higher (p<0.05), but those of CD4+, A, C and Hb  were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the HIV seropositive patients compared with the control. The statistical regression and correlation between HIV viral copies/ml and Hb (g/dl) of HIV seropositive patients were significant (p<0.05)(r = 0.985), regression equation: Ŷ (copies/ml) = 160000 – 19703.704xi (g/dl). Incidence of HIV infection correlated positively and significantly (p<0.05) with significant increase (p<0.05) in  vl, AST, Tb, T and significant decrease (p<0.05) in C, CD4+, A and Hb of the ART treatment naïve HIV seropositive patients. These significant differences/alterations could be used as effective criteria/yardstick for the diagnosis and prognosis of  HIV infection.

Key words: Lymphocyte, seropositive, prognosis, infection.


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