International Journal of Manures and Fertilizers

International Journal of Manures and Fertilizers Vol. 4 (1), pp. 581-587 January, 2016. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

A study of the amounts of fertilizers for optimum yields of wheat grown under residual soil moisture condition and the returns associated with production

Morgan David1*, D. H Pocock1, Edward Mugbabe2 and K. K. Mtawaria3

1Chiredzi Research Station, P. O. Box 97, Chiredzi. Zimbabwe.

2Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi. Zimbabwe.

3 Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru. Zimbabwe.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: morgan.david44@yahoo.com.

Accepted 27 March, 2013

Abstract

Wheat production in winter under wetland conditions has been low due to lack of topdressing because very little or no rains fall in winter. Due to water logging in summer nutrients are leached remaining with very little to sustain the winter crops. This paper examines the effects of two different types of compounds (Cmp) and ammonium nitrate (AN) applied at different rates as basal dressing under residual moisture conditions. Treatments tested were zero (control); Basal 250 kg/ha Cmp. D (7N:14P:8K); Basal (250 kg/ha Cmp D + 52.5 kg/ha N); Basal (500 kg/ha D + 105 kg/ha N); Basal 350 kg/ha Cmp X(20N:10P:5K); Basal 700 kg/ha Cmp X; Basal (500 kg/ha Cmp. D+ 35 kg/ha N; Basal 500 kg/ha); and Basal 140 kg/ha N as AN(34.5%N). Results showed that zero fertility and applying 250 kg/ha D with 52.5 kg/ha N at planting took significantly shorter number of days to flower in both seasons. Zero fertility and applying 250 kg/ha D with 52.5 kg/ha N at planting had significantly lighter seed weight in both seasons. Significant yield differences existed among treatments with zero fertility, 250 kg/ha D, and 250 kg/ha D with 52.5 Kg/ha N and 140 kg/ha N at planting showing significantly lower yields as compared to applying 500 kg/ha D with 105.5 kg/ha N and 500 kg/ha D with 35.5 kg/ha N at planting in both seasons. There were no significant yield differences in applying compound X at 700, 350 and 500 kg/ha D with 35 kg/ha N at planting in both seasons. There were no significant yield differences between 500 kg/ha D, 140 kg/ha N, 250 kg/ha D +52.5N and 250 kg/ha D in the first season. Positive gross margin were realised when 350kg/ha Compound X was applied in both seasons. Applying 140kg/ha N at planting had least positive gross margin in both seasons.

Key words: Residual soil moisture, ammonium nitrate, compound, yield, gross margins.