International Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

International Journal of Anatomy and Physiology ISSN 2326-7275 Vol. 4 (5), pp. 077-080, May, 2015. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

An assessment of the effect of methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea on potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in mature wistar rats

Farida Ganiyu1, Aminu Haruna2* and Marwa Ali Sherriff2

1Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

2Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: farida_ganiyu@gmail.com.

Accepted 04 February, 2015

Abstract

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea on potassium bromate (KBrO3) induced nephrotoxicity in adult wistar rats. Twenty five adult wistar rats weighing 160-280 g were divided into five groups. The negative control group A was orally administered with 1 ml of distilled water daily, whereas the positive control group B was orally administered with 75 mg/kg/body weight for 14 days. Group C received 250 mg/kg/body weight of extract and 75 mg/kg/ body weight of KBrO3 after six hours orally. Group D received 500 mg/kg/body weight of extract and 75 mg/kg/ body weight of KBrO3 after six hours orally, while group E received oral dose of potassium bromate at 75 mg/kg/ body weight and 500 mg/kg/body weight of extract after six hours. Both the control and experimental groups were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia at the end of the period of administration. The results show that the body weights were reduced at the end of the period of administration. Histopathological examination indicated that group B (positive control group) showed nephrotoxicity, this is evidenced by the presence of inflammation and tubular dilatation within the renal cortex. Groups C and E showed significant recovery evidenced by the presence of normal kidney. Group D showed area of mild peri-capsular inflammation, that is, within and around the glomerulus. The prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by potassium bromate was observed to be higher in group E, which took the extracts six hours after the induction of potassium bromate when compared with group D, which took the extracts six hours before potassium bromate induction. This study suggests that oral administration of methanolic extract of P. oleracea significantly ameliorates potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats and seem to be useful in controlling kidney injury in drug induced nephrotoxicity. 

Key words: Kidney, histopathology, potassium bromate, nephrotoxicity, Portulaca oleracea.