African Journal of Plant Breeding

African Journal of Plant Breeding ISSN 2375-074X Vol. 3 (2), pp. 151-155, February, 2016. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Assessing the antibacterial activity of morula (Sclerocarya birrea) stem bark and leaf extracts against some selected bacterial isolates in Kano, Nigeria

Umuaru E. S.1*, M. K. Habib1, Mohammed T. W2 and Azeez M. M 3

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State

2Department of Plant Science, Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

3Department of science laboratory technology, kano state polytechnic, Kano

*Corresponding author. E-mail: umuaru1948@yahoo.com

Accepted 28 June, 2013

Abstract

Antibacterial evaluation of the methanolic extract and aqueous fraction of leaf and stem bark of the morula tree, Sclerocarya birrea was carried out using the agar-well diffusion method. They were tested against two gram positive organism; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one gram negative organism Staphylococcus aureus. Result obtained confirmed a broad Spectrum of activity, as all the organisms were inhibited by the extract. The stem bark extract exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 8 - 17 and 0 - 8 mm for methanol and water extracts respectively while extracts of leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity of 6 - 16 mm and 5-8 mm for methanol and water respectively. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] of methanol extract of stem bark was 5 mg ml-1. The minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] was 10 mg ml-1. The results of phytochemcial screening have demonstrated the presence of alkaloid, Flavonoid and tannins in some, or all the extract. Therefore, this study further confirms the traditional use of stem bark and leaf extracts of S. birrea in some parts of Northern Nigeria as a remedy against infectious diseases caused by most of the organism studied.

Key words: antibacterial activity, Sclerocarya birrea, bacterial isolate, aqueous and methanol extracts, phyto-chemicals.