African Journal of Biotechnology Research

African Journal of Biotechnology Research ISSN 9316-2194 Vol. 4 (7), pp. 200-205, July, 2016. © International Scholars Journals 

Full Length Research Paper

Potential hazard of using traditional trace metals-containing eyeliners

A. M. David1*, V. G. C. Festus2, Okumagba Pius1and Okpomor Gentle1

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin


Accepted 10 June, 2016


The study was carried out to investigate the effect of galena-based eyeliner on the cellular and functional integrity of rat liver and brain by evaluating the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT respectively), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% (w/v) of the eyeliner were prepared in water. Analysis of the eyeliner was carried out to determine its elemental components. The experimental animals were grouped into four. Group 1 rats received 0.2ml of distilled water in drops to their eyes while groups 2-4 received 0.2ml of 0.50, 0.75 and1.00% (w/v) eyeliner respectively for 14 days after which venous blood were collected for the determinations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results revealed a significant increase (P<0.05) in blood Pb and Cd concentrations. Also, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum ALP, AST, ALT and LDH activities but a significant reduction in the liver and brain (P<0.05). The MDA concentration of the brain and liver were significantly elevated (P<0.05) in comparison to control. This pattern of results is suggestive of a possible alteration in the structural and functional capacity of the liver and brain by the eyeliner in a concentration and time dependent manner.

Key words: Elemental, galena, eyeliner, enzymes, liver, brain